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Back pain can be divided into the neck, thoracic, and lumbar (lumbago). Pain may occur suddenly (acute pain) or be present constantly (chronic pain – pain lasting over three months). Pain may occur occasionally or may be persistent. Back pain originates from muscles, nerves, joints, bones, and other structures of the spine, says Joseph Robinson from, spine.md.
Back pain at least once in a lifetime is experienced by 90% of people, and 50% of employees have recurrent back pain. Smoking badly affects the spine, as it significantly impairs the supply of nutrients to the tissues of the bloodstream. It also accelerates osteoporosis, which bones become porous and brittle, which can lead to spontaneous fractures. Also, smoking slows the healing process.
One of the most common causes of back pain is mechanical. In most cases, it is the disease of the intervertebral cartilage (intervertebral discus), the most common of which is the lower lumbar ones. Cartilage with age and mechanical injuries, smaller or larger, degenerates, loses water and elasticity. Back pain is often of muscular origin. These can be muscle stretching, muscle spasm, fibromyalgia, and other causes. Another potential cause of pain is small intervertebral joints, possibly due to damage to the soft structures of these joints.
The treatment of lower back pain is aimed at reducing pain in the shortest time and for the person to function normally as soon as possible. It is also necessary to determine all the factors that led to the pain, the factors that support it or prolong its duration. Preventive measures to prevent back pain include purchasing a proper bed, mattress, pillow, ergonomically shaped chairs, and armchairs, stopping abdominal sleep, smoking cessation, strengthening the back and abdominal muscles.
The most appropriate exercise is walking fast, with at least 30 minutes. It is important to wear comfortable and good quality shoes with a low (but not flat) heel. When chronic low back pain, which is most commonly lumbar syndrome, is diagnosed, therapy is determined that is individual, and the use of analgesics is advised. It is important to avoid forced postures (standing or sitting longer, lifting heavy objects) and providing an adequate mattress.